Convoy JW 56B was an Arctic convoy sent from Great Britain by the Western Allies to aid the Soviet Union during World War II. As the fighting progressed, new convoys became necessary, including routes to Malta and the Soviet Union (the ' Arctic Convoys'). They were east-bound convoys and originated in Halifax, Nova Scotia from where they sailed to ports in the United Kingdom. Convoy Battles of World War II occurred when convoys of cargo ships assembled for mutual defense, and were attacked by enemy submarines, surface ships, and/or aircraft. As fast convoys they were less vulnerable to U-boat attack than the slow convoys, but they still witnessed some of the great convoy battles of the war. Of these, 53 were lost in convoy, 30 were stragglers and 130 were losses out of convoy. 6 For more on convoy and routing, visit the NHHC Library Online Reading room. Convoy battles also occurred in the Arctic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and western Pacific Ocean . It sailed in late January 1944, reaching the Soviet northern ports at the beginning of February. The Gibraltar convoys of World War II were oceangoing trade convoys of merchant ships sailing between Gibraltar and the United Kingdom. In total, 450 convoy series were run over the course of the Second World War. Number of Convoys Notes; AT: United States to British Isles: March 1942: 1945: troopships: BHX: Bermuda to Liverpool: May 1940: March 1941: 97 (# 41-137) sailed from Bermuda and merged with same number HX convoy at sea: CK: Charleston, South Carolina to British Isles: 1944: 1944: rarely used: CT: British Isles to Canada: 1941: 1941: troopships: CU: Caribbean (later New York City) to Liverpool The HX convoys were a series of North Atlantic convoys which ran during the Battle of the Atlantic in World War II. Convoy, vessels sailing under the protection of an armed escort. 1942: Atlantic Convoys Following United States' entry into World War II, Germany decided to undertake Operation Drumbeat (Paukenschlag), which was the initial wave of German U-boats meant for a fast and suprise attack on the United States east coast and Allied shipping. A convoy of merchant ships protected by airplanes en route to Cape Town during World War II. Convoy Battles of World War II occurred when convoys of cargo ships assembled for mutual defense, and were attacked by enemy submarines, surface ships, and/or aircraft. This is a list of convoy codes used by the Allies during World War II. World War II Convoys JW-54A and RA-55A Posted on November 11, 2006 by Steve As part of the US Naval Armed Guard, my father served on the Liberty Ship the S. S. Daniel Drake on two convoys as part of the Murmansk Run, delivering war supplies to the Eastern Front. Book review: Of the many convoys that traversed northern seas ferrying goods to Soviet ports during World War II, none met a fate as awful as the one numbered PQ-17. During World War I and World War II, the practice was revived to protect Allied and neutral merchant shipping against German surface raiders and submarines. With German U-Boats and Allied Cruisers patrolling the seas, many thousands aboard They were designated fast convoys, that is, made up of ships that could make 9-13 knots. During World War II, between 1941 and 1945, 78 Allied Arctic convoys brought more than 4 million tons of provisions and munitions to the U.S.S.R. *The page for … This is a List of Allied convoys during World War II by region. For an alphabetical listing of convoy codes, see, North American Coastal and Caribbean Convoys, Mediterranean and North African Coastal Convoys, List of Allied convoy codes during World War II, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Allied_convoys_during_World_War_II_by_region&oldid=953062409, North American Coastal convoys of World War II, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, outward and return convoys used same number, temporarily replaced by EC convoys during 1941, merged with OB convoy in the southwest approaches, merged with OA convoy in the southwest approaches - ON and OS convoys replaced OB convoys, sailed from Bermuda and merged with same number HX convoy at sea, 9-knot convoys for ships of sustained speeds less than 15 knots, slower ships to the Mediterranean - 1st 12 sailed independently - remainder sailed with OS convoys and detached west of Gibraltar, slower ships from the Mediterranean- 1st 11 sailed independently - remainder merged with SL convoys west of Gibraltar, early sailings every 5th merged OA/OB convoy became an OG convoy at sea - later OG convoys sailed from Liverpool, replaced OB convoys for North American destinations - alternate convoys included slower ships until the ONS convoys started, slower ships westbound on the ON convoy route, replaced OB convoys for non-North American destinations - included KMS convoys detached west of Gibraltar, 7-knot convoys of eastbound ships too slow for the 9-knot HX convoys, merged with MKS convoys west of Gibraltar, faster ships - (UGF-1) was the invasion force for, French convoys - sometimes prefixed F or S, southward extension of the corresponding OS convoy, July 1942 from Beira - September 1943 from Mumbai, {return Addu Atoll to Colombo convoys used same CX designation}, troopships; WS convoys on at least one occasion [WS30, 1943] routed via Freetown and Durban, This page was last edited on 25 April 2020, at 14:34. eg: ON=Liverpool to New York, fast. 38 convoys were attacked (about 10%), resulting in losses of Most were in the North Atlantic from 1939 to 1943, and involved attacks by U-Boat wolfpacks. Of the 40 convoys during the campaign which lost more than 6 ships, 5 were in the HX series. Bombay - Aden/Red Sea In both World War I and World War II, Bermudians served in the British armed forces. A parallel series of slow convoys, the SC series, was run for ships making 8 knots or less, while ships making more than 13 knots sailed independently, until 14-knot CU convoys were organized in late 1943. There were also fights between the Bermudian men and servicemen over women. ISBN (Canada) 1 55125 033 0 . Code Prefix South Atlantic Routes First Sailing Last Sailing Number of Convoys Notes; AS: United States to Suez Canal: 1942: 1942: via Freetown: BF: Bahia to Freetown: 1943: USN escorts: BRN: Bahia to … X: The Atlantic Battle Won, May 1943-1945 (Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1956), 24-25; Farago, Tenth Fleet, 163–216. The U.S. Navy Fought Nazi Germany In The Atlantic Before America Entered World War II. A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection. OB 98GF (& OA 98GF)• OB 105*•OB 169• OB 228**•OB 244• OB 275• OB 286• OB 287•OB 288•OB 290 Reports• OB 318. There were over 300 convoy routes organized, in all areas of the world; each was designated by a two- or three letter code. List of World War II convoys provides additional information on a regional basis. On the eve of World War II, with its emphasis on antisubmarine operations against German U-boats in the North Atlantic, the U.S. Navy’s destroyer force consisted mainly of Fletcher-, … Contents. These deliveries played a crucial role in the Soviet war effort. Gibraltar convoy routes crossed U-boat transit routes from French Atlantic ports and were within range of Axis maritime patrol aircraft making these convoys vulnerable to observation and interception by bombers, submarines, and surface warships during the Battle of the … HX convoys were organized at the beginning of the Atlantic campaign and ran without major changes until the end, the longest continuous series of the war. The simulated, World War II-style convoy underscored the importance of sealift to U.S. war plans, as well as the shortage of naval escorts that has incited a minor panic among military planners. It arrived in the UK, without incident, on 3 August 1944.[1]. By the end of the war in November 1918, 90% of overseas traffic was in convoy. HX-1 set sail on September 16. They absorbed the BHX convoys from Bermuda en route. Images pertain to Allied merchant ship crewmembers and vessels damaged, or sunk, by German U-boats during 1942. ", http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/catalogue/displaycataloguedetails.asp?CATID=-5742223&CATLN=7&Highlight=&FullDetails=False, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/HX_convoys?oldid=2505225, Dan van der Vat : The Atlantic Campaign (1988). The Arctic convoys of World War II were oceangoing convoys which sailed from the United Kingdom, Iceland, and North America to northern ports in the Soviet Union – primarily Arkhangelsk (Archangel) and Murmansk in Russia. The largest convoy of World War II was HX 300 which sailed for the UK via New York on 17 July 1944, with 167 merchant ships. Bermuda’s contribution to the war effort was out of all proportion to its geographical size. ISBN (UK) 1 86176 147 3. List of Allied convoys during World War II by region; List of World War II convoys; M Mid-Ocean Escort Force; O Convoy OA 178; Convoy OB 318; Convoy OB 293; Convoy OG 69; Convoy OG 71; Convoy OG 82; ON convoys; Convoy ON 67; Convoy ON 122; Convoy ON 144; Convoy ON 207; Convoy ON 113; Convoy ON 115; Convoy ON 127; Convoy ON 153; They absorbed the BHX convoys from Bermuda en route. Most were in the North Atlantic from 1939 to 1943, and involved attacks by U-Boat wolfpacks.Convoy battles also occurred in the Mediterranean Sea and western Pacific Ocean. This marked the beginning of a dangerous phase of the Second World War, dubbed the Battle of the Atlantic by Winston Churchill. List of World War II Convoys - South Atlantic Convoys. They were east-bound convoys and originated in Halifax, Nova Scotia from where they sailed to ports in the United Kingdom. UK - Middle East via Cape: Summer 1940. Convoy Routing Codes World War II AB-- Aden to Bombay ABF-- Aden to Bombay, Fast AC-- Alexandria to Cyrenaica (1941) AG-- Alexandria to Greece (1941) ... BHX-- Bermuda Joiner to HX BK-- Bombay to Karachi BK-- … The rental market started to boom once the base agreement came into action. Forgotten Sacrifice: The Arctic Convoys of World War II Michael Walling. Aden - Kilindini - Durban: From Sept' 1943: A.P. Among the best known HX convoy battles were: Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Full listing of ships sailing in HX convoys, "Item details ADM 199/2192/25—Convoy Lists—Convoy number HXS300 from Halifax (later New York) to UK. Almost exactly a year later, another converted liner, the 14,000-ton SS Jervis Bay, under Commander Edward Fegen, was escorting Convoy HX-84 from Bermuda to Britain. List of Allied convoys during World War II by region. Fast military convoy with war materials for Middle East: A.S. America - Freetown: From March 1942, military convoys: A.T. 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