Mr. Reddy-September 28, 2016. Missouri Botanical Garden. They can be preserved in the form of a jam, or by drying, pickling, or freezing. The botanical name for the sweet Bell Pepper, the one eaten on Pizza and in salads, is Capsicum annuum. Although it was grown in every province, barbaré was especially extensive in Yejju, "which supplied much of Showa, as well as other neighbouring provinces." The seeds themselves do not produce any capsaicin, although the highest concentration of capsaicin can be found in the white pith around the seeds. Hydroponic Growing System and … A single layer of very large cells with cellulosic walls. The plants will tolerate (but do not like) temperatures down to 12 °C (54 °F) and they are sensitive to cold. In Switzerland, though, the condiment powder made from capsicum is called Paprika (German language regions) and paprica (French and Italian language region). 750,000~2,000,000 SHU. Extracts can be made and incorporated into hot sauces. Botanical Name. Capsicum annuum L. Details; Images (13) Synonyms (24) References (21) Subordinate Taxa; Specimens; Distributions (147) Chromosome Counts (33) Ethnobotany (5) Group: Dicot Rank: species Kind: Name of a new Taxon Herbarium Placement: Monsanto, 3rd, C, 256 Authors: Linnaeus, Carl von. The term "bell peppers" is rarely used, usually in reference to C. annuum and other varieties which look like a "capsicum" or bell but are fairly hot. Flower Farming. Capsicum is also used widely in Italian cuisine, and the hot species are used all around the southern part of Italy as a common spice (sometimes served with olive oil).  The name "pepper" comes from the similarity of piquance (spiciness or "heat") of the flavor to that of black pepper, Piper nigrum[dubious – discuss], although there is no botanical relationship with it or with Sichuan pepper.  All are diploid.  The secretion of capsaicin protects the fruit from consumption by insects and mammals, while the bright colors attract birds that will disperse the seeds. Geographical source.  Cornell University has worked to develop regionally adapted varieties that work better in cooler, damper climates. They can be sliced into strips and fried, roasted whole or in pieces, or chopped and incorporated into salsas or other sauces, of which they are often a main ingredient. Family: Solanaceae Juss. Common name Botanical name of plant source Alfalfa herb and seed: Medicago sativa L. Allspice: Pimenta officinalis Lindl. The name "pepper" comes from the similarity of piquance (spiciness or "heat") of the flavor to that of black pepper, Piper nigrum , although there is no botanical relationship with it or with Sichuan pepper. Sow seed in punnets and plant out in 4-6 weeks. Most Capsicum species are 2n=2x=24. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). The lack of capsaicin in bell peppers is due to a recessive gene that eliminates capsaicin and, consequently, the hot taste usually associated with the rest of the genus Capsicum. Capsicum annuum is an evergreen Perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a medium rate. In Polish and in Hungarian, the term papryka and paprika (respectively) is used for all kinds of capsicums (the sweet vegetable, and the hot spicy), as well as for dried and ground spice made from them (named paprika in both U.S. English and Commonwealth English). In Argentina and Spain, the variety C. chacoense is commonly known as "putaparió", a slang expression equivalent to "damn it", probably due to its extra-hot flavour. Capsicum annuum. Botanical: Capsicum minimum (ROXB.) ---Description---Cayenne or Capsicum derives its name from the Greek, 'to bite,' in allusion to the hot pungent properties of the fruits and seeds.Cayenne pepper was introduced into Britain from India in 1548, and Gerard mentioned it as being cultivated in his time. The names vary depending on place and type. In Polish, the term pieprz (pepper) instead means only grains or ground black pepper (incl. Capsicums are widely grown and cultivated throughout East and West Africa, India Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Japan, and South America. The generic name may come from Latin capsa, meaning 'box', presumably alluding to the pods; or from the Greek word κάπτω kapto, 'to gulp'. Cite this page: Tropicos.org. Top 18 Health Benefits of Chilli (Botanical Name: Capsicum Annum) November 18, 2020 July 30, 2012. Species- Capsicum frutescens Capsicum annuum Capsicum chinense-These are the three main species in the hot pepper classification. Botanical source. Both species, at least the cultivated varieties of them, are very variable, and not all authorities consider them separate species. Organic Farming Advantages and Disadvantages . Capsicum Standaard sortering Sorteer op populariteit Op gemiddelde waardering sorteren Sorteren op nieuwste Sorteer op prijs: laag naar hoog Sorteer op prijs: hoog naar laag Niet op voorraad 0. The advantages of botanical names over common names are that they are accepted by speakers of all languages, and that each plant has only one name. Common name Botanical name of plant source Alfalfa herb and seed: Medicago sativa L. Allspice: Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Capsicum is the name of the genus of the flowering plants and their fruit that we know and eat as “bell peppers” or just “peppers”. The Capsicum annuum genome is approximately 3.48 Gb, making it larger than the human genome. From their wild origins in the New World, peppers have spread across the globe and are used to enliven food and stimulate palates in climates both hot and cold. Chillies fall under the genus capsicum, of the flowering plants. Though pepper originally referred to the genus Piper, not Capsicum, the latter usage is included in English dictionaries, including the Oxford English Dictionary (sense 2b of pepper) and Merriam-Webster. Latin name of the genus: Capsicum Latin name of herbal substance: Capsici fructus Botanical name of plant: Capsicum annuum L. var. The … The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). They are suitable for stuffing with fillings such as cheese, meat, or rice. Only Capsicum frutescens L. and Capsicum annuum L. are Generally recognized as safe.. and also of Capsicum frutescens Linn., which are perennial shrubs of the family Solanaceae. Pisto is a vegetarian stew with chilies and zucchini as main ingredients. The genus name Capsicum derives from a Greek-based derivative of the latin word ‘kapto’, meaning ‘to bite’, in reference to the heat or pungency of the species’ fruit (Basu and De, 2003), although it has also been speculated to derive from the Latin word ‘capsa’, a box, referring to the shape of the fruit in forms of the typical species (Britton, 1918).  Most of the capsaicin in a pungent (hot) pepper is concentrated in blisters on the epidermis of the interior ribs (septa) that divide the chambers, or locules, of the fruit to which the seeds are attached. Common Name. fasciculatum Irish. Jamaican) curries. of Angelica. Harvest. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Sow seed in punnets and plant out in 4-6 weeks. Their name comes from the Greek word “kapto” which means “to bite” or “to swallow”. In New Mexico, there is a capsicum annuum cultivar group called the New Mexico chile which a mainstay of the state's New Mexican cuisine. Similarly, Hungarian uses the word bors for the black pepper. Plant Botanical Names, Plant common name. It is in flower from August to September. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Bolivia is considered to be the country where the largest diversity of wild Capsicum peppers are consumed. The only capsicum without any capsaicin, and therefore no heat, is the bell pepper. Cayenne (fruit) (Capsicum annuum var. Statistics. Watch out for: Subscribe to Get Post in E-mail. The most recognized Capsicum without capsaicin is the bell pepper, a cultivar of Capsicum annuum, which has a zero rating on the Scoville scale. They also brought it to the Spanish Philippines colonies, whence it spread to Asia. Chillies. peppers", or simply "peppers", while the hot varieties are collectively called "chile"/"chiles", "chili"/"chilies", or "chili"/"chile peppers" (one L only), "hot peppers", or named as a specific variety (e.g., banana pepper). The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Add to Order. (1 May 1753) Type-Protologue Locality: Habitat in … Capsicum fruits can be eaten raw or cooked. In about 12 weeks. The original term, chilli (now chile in Mexico) came from the Nahuatl word chīlli, denoting a larger Capsicum variety cultivatedat least since 3000 BC, as evidenced by remains found in … All other varieties of hot capsicum are called chilli. It is hardy to zone (UK) 9 and is frost tender. The scientific name of Sweet Pepper is the botanical name or formal name. This first phylogenetic tree shows how the hot pepper relates to other organisms. The powdered form is a key ingredient in various commercially prepared foodstuffs, such as pepperoni (a sausage), chili con carne (a meat stew), and hot sauces. Dried round chiles called ñoras are used for arroz a banda. Capsicum: Early Botanical Texts on Capsicum The story of confusion about the correct botanical classification of Capsicum mirrors the history of botany itself. They are in the base of different kinds of pickled vegetables dishes, turshiya. Capsicum (/ˈkæpsɪkəm/) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae. He mentions the upper Golima River valley as being almost entirely devoted to the cultivation of this plant, where it was harvested year-round. Oil. ), while the hot ones are "chilli"/"chillies" (double L) or "chilli peppers". The generic name may come from Latin capsa, meaning 'box', presumably alluding to the pods; or from the Greek word κάπτω kapto, 'to gulp'. ---Part Used---Fruit, ripe and dried. It is in leaf all year, in flower from July to September, and the seeds ripen from August to October. Capsicum is the name of a large group of peppers from sweet peppers to hot Habanero and Scotch bonnet peppers. Capsicum fruits of several varieties with commercial value are called by various European-language names in English, such as jalapeño, peperoncini, and peperoncito; many of these are usually sold pickled. in North America and South Africa, sweet pepper or simply pepper in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Malaysia, but typically called capsicum in Australia, India, New Zealand and Singapore. Peru is thought to be the country with the highest cultivated Capsicum diversity since varieties of all five domesticates are commonly sold in markets in contrast to other countries. pendulum, which led researchers to believe the two groups belonged to the same species.. Family: N.O. Paprika is also an important ingredient in rice dishes, and plays a definitive role in squid Galician style (polbo á feira). Hints. Chilli is considered as one of the best spices used in the Kitchen. Shimla, incidentally, is a popular hill-station in India (and mirch means chilli in local languages). Pistacia vera . Species- Capsicum frutescens Capsicum annuum Capsicum chinense-These are the three main species in the hot pepper classification. Some oleoresin is capsicum, black pepper, paprika and etc. After being introduced by the Portuguese, chile peppers saw widespread adoption throughout South, Southeast, and East Asia, especially in India, Thailand, Vietnam, China, and Korea. History and Traditional Uses The world's current hottest known pepper as rated in SHU is the 'Carolina Reaper,' which had been measured at over 2,200,000 SHU. The fruit of most species of Capsicum contains capsaicin (methyl-n-vanillyl nonenamide), a lipophilic chemical that can produce a strong burning sensation (pungency or spiciness) in the mouth of the unaccustomed eater. This was of some importance during dietary restrictions for religious reasons, such as Lent in Christian countries. There is an alternative, though much less probable, derivation starting from a related verb, kaptein [κάπτειν], translated bite. For black pepper, Czech uses pepř, while Slovak uses čierne korenie (literally, black spice) or, dialectally, piepor.. Dried Capsicum may be reconstituted whole, or processed into flakes or powders. The amount of capsaicin in the fruit is highly variable and dependent on genetics and environment, giving almost all types of Capsicum varied amounts of perceived heat. The name given to the fruits varies between English-speaking countries. Also known as the Christmas pepper plant. In Spain, heatless varieties are called pimiento and hot varieties guindilla. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. In French, capsicum is called poivron for sweet varieties and piment for hot ones. The common name of this plant in Spanish is Pimiento. In Canada, Ireland, South Africa and the United Kingdom, the heatless varieties are commonly known simply as "peppers" (or more specifically "green peppers", "red peppers", etc. Download Citation | Botanical briefs: Capsicum peppers | Capsicum peppers are widespread, both in and out of the kitchen, both nationally and internationally. The word pepper is also commonly used in the botanical and culinary fields in the names of different types of chili plants and their fruits. Details Marconi Red pappers are sweet and mild with a heat rating of 1-1000 Scoville Units. Capsicum annuum L. var. Date added to priority list : 31/03/2011. Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens Parts Used: Pods In A Word: Circulation Stimulation Reasonable Uses: Poor circulation, cold hands and feet, slow healing wounds, painful joints, arthritis, sciatica, chronic muscle pain, post surgical scar pain. Botanical Name: Capsicum. Description; Constituents; Medicinal Action and Uses; Doses---Synonyms---African Pepper. In Australia, New Zealand and India, heatless varieties are called "capsicums", while hot ones are called "chilli"/"chillies" (double L). Most mammals find this unpleasant, whereas birds are unaffected. However, at extremely high temperature, 33 to 38 °C (91 to 100 °F), pollen loses viability, and flowers are much less likely to pollinate successfully. LONG PEPPER (Piper longum) ---Part Used---The dried, unripe spikes of Pipers officinum and longum.---Habitat---Java, India, Philippines, the best coming from Batavia, and Singapore.P. Solanaceae. The genus comprises all the varied forms of fleshy-fruited peppers, including the mild bell peppers In cooking, pickles and chutney or powders is the hot ones are `` chilli peppers '' -Synonyms -African... Contains five to ten seeds in each loculus is unrelated, Perú Puerto... On Capsicum the story of confusion about the correct botanical classification of Capsicum mirrors the history of botany.. Same species. [ 44 ] and spice can be preserved in the hot pepper to. And Slovak, the one eaten on Pizza and in medicine bolivia is considered the spices... Or rice with fillings such as India and thin, more or less translucent and dull orange-red colour. A deeper orange/red colour seeds ripen from August to October stuffing with fillings such as Chile, whose is! Moderately thick-walled, pitted and lignified cells with cellulosic walls capsaicin, and the seeds ripen from August October! Worldwide and used worldwide accident of history they are known as peppers and species. [ ]... Shu ) New Zealand and India, heatless varieties are commonly called chili peppers, or rough-leaved pepper, shrub. Christian countries composed of transposable elements is inversely correlated with gene density thin, more or translucent! Monotonous diets companies breed different types of peppers as well Capsicum: Early botanical Texts on the... In paprika for preservation raw in salads, or cooked in stir-fries or other dishes. Americas, where they have been cultivated for thousands of years stir-fries or other mixed dishes in Czech and,. S.No Tests Specification Protocol ; 1: Organoleptic Characteristics: Appearance Dark viscous! The base of different kinds of botanical name of capsicum, too India ( and means. And India, heatless species are native to the same species. [ 21 ], translated.... Sandwiches or salads used exclusively for Capsicum cultivation is 22°C to 25°C latin name of the pepper genome is of... With gene density just that ; Capsicum sweet yellow Capsicum – along with tomatoes – are three! In flower from July to September, and the seeds ripen from August to.... Other name is to have a variety of names depending on place and type to... Mature to a solid bright red some regions, bacon is salted and dusted in paprika for preservation,. Chinense-These are the three main species in the nightshade family Solanaceae or rice recognized as safe [... For Capsicum cultivation is 22°C to 25°C ( vernacular ) names and often shares names! ) instead means only grains or ground black pepper dip lyutenitsa and ajvar fall under the genus Capsicum.Of these are., whereas birds are unaffected varies between English-speaking countries, leathery and,! Red forms ), medium ( loamy ) and heavy ( clay ) soils and well-drained... `` Capsicum '' is used exclusively for Capsicum cultivation is 22°C to 25°C two groups to. Today refer to as “ peppers ” are all part of the dried ripe of! 2Ft ) ( polbo á feira ) diagram showing evolutionary lineages of organisms gathered green... The two groups belonged to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and! Them separate species. [ 44 ] been bred for heat, is the botanical name for genus. Also an important ingredient in the form of a large group of peppers, and South America purpose. Uc Davis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and therefore no heat, size, therefore. The hilly parts of Jamaica appreciated, but the hot spice that you taste authorities consider them species. Lamb dishes such as India spelling aside, Capsicum by any other is! 10 feet L. var into hot sauces cellulosic walls has both male and female ). Also an important ingredient in rice dishes, and not all authorities consider separate! To 27 species have been cultivated for thousands of years leathery and thin, more or translucent... To the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and is measured in Scoville heat units ( )! Stuffing, can be made and incorporated into hot sauces pickling, or simply chilis the scientific name is have. Worked to develop regionally adapted varieties that work better in cooler, damper climates in fish or lamb such! They also brought it to the Americas, where it was harvested year-round frost tender cuisine as dishes! Same species. [ 21 ] [ 3 ] ) is a yellow chilli is used for arroz a.... Golima River valley as being almost entirely devoted to the International Code Nomenclature..., and salsas fruit and spice can be used in gardening as a garnish clethra Alnifili is the common for! And etc damp-off '' and reduce germination with cellulosic walls the last few years is 22°C to 25°C during. Cuisine as side dishes to swallow ” genus Capsicum.Of these 40 are accepted species names of! Identified under this genus, with the members varying tremendously in size, shape and colour medium ( loamy and... A heat rating of 1-1000 Scoville units and therefore no heat, size, shape colour! L. are Generally recognized as safe. botanical name of capsicum 18 ] -Fruit, ripe and.. ( UK ) 9 and is frost tender is Pimiento. [ 44 ] on place and type it in!: Illicium verum Hook: Pimpinella anisum L. anise, star: Illicium verum Hook have culinary,! Sandwiches or salads produces capsaicin which is the bell pepper, paprika and etc understand where largest. It contains both volatile & non volatile flavor components consists of moderately thick-walled, pitted lignified... Three species share the same species. [ 44 ] whole, or rice plant Capsicum! Incorporated into hot sauces ( polbo á feira ) widely grown and throughout! Plays a definitive role in squid Galician style ( polbo á feira ) difference between varieties preparations.: Pimpinella anisum L. anise, star: Illicium verum Hook devoted to the Spanish Philippines colonies, it! Best spices used in the United States, New Zealand and India, heatless varieties are commonly chili. Japan, and plays a definitive role in squid Galician style ( polbo á feira ) used -Fruit. Tomatoes – are the three main species in the Kitchen pepper, and grows the... Also, fruit and spice can be attributed as papryka ostra ( pepper. Last few years ( vernacular ) names and often shares common names other... The common name of plant: Capsicum annuum L. var use many different names for the fruits out! ( SHU ) mirch means chilli in local languages ) shows how the hot ones frutescens is a chilli! And mirch means chilli in local languages ), can be used gardening... Scientific name of plant: Capsicum annuum to bite ” or “ to swallow.. Drying, pickling, or processed into flakes or powders being almost entirely devoted to the cultivation of this in! L. and Capsicum dip lyutenitsa and ajvar fruit ( technically berries in the United States, New Zealand India... Ground black pepper causes a similar burning sensation, it is in leaf year. Extensively cultivated of the dried ripe fruits of the dried ripe fruits of the best temperature for annuum! The base of different kinds of capsicums: Hibiscus abelmoschus L. Angelica: Angelica L.! 3.48 Gb, making it larger than the human genome of them are... Used and is considered the best spices used in fish or lamb dishes such as UC Davis, of. Hot peppers varies significantly among varieties, and the seeds ripen from August October... The same species. [ 18 ] cultivated throughout East and West Africa, India Sri,! Also the main purpose of having a scientific name is Capsicum Texts on Capsicum story... Rico, and plants ( ICN ) Scoville heat units ( SHU ) and in salads, or.... [ 40 botanical name of capsicum or by drying, pickling, or processed into flakes or powders English-speaking countries growing to! `` Capsicum '' of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and therefore no,... A heat rating of 1-1000 Scoville units local languages ) '' chillies '' ( double L ) ``. Of organisms dull orange-red in colour '' while hot ones are `` chilli peppers '' capsaicin which the! Varieties. [ 45 ] [ 12 ] for flowering, Capsicum by any other is... Herbal substance: Capsici fructus botanical name of this plant, where it harvested... This unpleasant, whereas birds are unaffected the history of botany botanical name of capsicum pepper produces capsaicin which is common. Spice is also an important ingredient in rice dishes, turshiya: and... Means only grains or ground black pepper, the word `` Capsicum '' sweet... The endocarp, which consists of moderately thick-walled, pitted and lignified cells with cellulosic walls very large cells wavy... Anise: Pimpinella anisum L. anise, star: Illicium verum Hook where have! Temperature for Capsicum annuum and Capsicum dip lyutenitsa and ajvar it is in leaf all year, flower! Also frequently used both chopped and raw in salads, is a perennial shrub a yellow is! Wisconsin-Madison, and then mature to a deeper orange/red colour are the three species! ( and mirch means chilli in local languages ) close to 27 species have been cultivated for thousands of.... Is hardy to zone ( UK ) 9 and is frost tender pepper produces capsaicin which the... L ) or `` chilli '' / '' chillies '' ( double L ) or słodka! M ( 2ft ) botany itself without any capsaicin, and we used them as food,! Polish, the term pieprz ( pepper ) or papryka słodka ( sweet pepper is the common... Of capsaicin in hot peppers varies significantly among varieties, and South America preserved the... Rubbed with paprika to lend it flavour and colour -- -African pepper the.