Ash emission from Eyjafjallajokull volcano forced the temporary closure of schools in southern Iceland. Overall assessment: The level of water in the crater lake only rose about 1 – 2 meters over the weekend. Volcanic explosive index (VEI) is 1 or less. Eruption plume from Eyjafjallajökull seen on MODIS image taken on April 15th at 11:39. No obvious explanation has been found for this movement. 2010. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption. Radar images acquired yesterday, 20 April, by the Icelandic Coast Guard showed no changes in the size of the cauldron at the eruption site of Eyjafjallajökull, compared with images from 19 April - Eyjólfur Magnússon, 20. Ab… So we think it's getting close to getting ready to erupt again." GPS stations around Eyjafjallajokull volcano (http://notendur.hi.is/runa/eyja_gps.html) show continued deflation of the region, but now at a much slower rate at the stations closest to the summit. Eruptions have decreased at Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland. Tephra filling the glacial lagoon of Gígjökulslón, carried by floods down the outlet glacier Gígjökull.3. Small ash clouds are seen occasionally, they disappear again in some minutes. Ash fall is 30 m deep near the crater. Five million travelers are stranded, waiting for flights to resume. The data is posted timely to give maximum information on evaluation of an evolving natural catastrophe. On the northern side a tephra wall rises 20 meters above the water. Mudflood: No mudfloods in the past few days. Present eruption rate is estimated to less than 30 m3/s of magma, or 75 tonnes/s , with a large uncertainty.Eruptive style: The northernmost one of two main craters in the summit caldera is active. The first 2010 eruption occurred at Fimmvörðuháls. Airborne tephra that has been carried to the east and south of the volcano (see memo by Thorvaldur Thordarson, Guðrún Larsen and Ármann Höskuldsson, pdf-file), The preliminary results are as follows:Tephra in ice cauldrons 30 Million m3Tephra in Gígjökull lagoon 10 Million m3Tephra fallout from eruption plume 100 Million m3Total: 140 Million m3. Water accumulation in the crater is slow as the ice is no longer in contact with hot material. Acquired May 2, 2010, this natural-color image shows an ash plume and steam over the summit of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano. The eruption was declared officially over in October 2010, when snow on the glacier did not melt. Extensive deformation is observed both north and south of Eyjafjallajökull. Map of the eruption site 20 April 2010The image below shows the eruption site at the top of Eyjafjallajökull volcano. Over time, the earthquakes rose towards the surface, and land near the volcano rose at least 40 millimeters (2 inches)—both indications that magma was moving underneath the volcano. Eruption plume loaded with tephra (ash) rises to more than 8 km, with tephra fallout in inhabited areas around the volcano. 111 p. http://www.raunvis.hi.is/~mtg/nemritg/BV-MS_2009.pdfPedersen, R., Freysteinn Sigmundsson and Páll Einarsson, 2007: Controlling factors on earthquake swarms associated with magmatic intrusions; Constraints from Iceland, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research,162,73-80.Pedersen, R., Sigmundsson, F., Temporal development of the 1999 intrusive episode in the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, derived from InSAR images, Bull. - Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir, Volume of erupted material and magma discharge for the first 72 hours, The Institute of Earth Sciences has now made a preliminary estimate of erupted material in the first three days of the eruption at Eyjafjallajökull. Visual observations yesterday: Regular explosions at intervals of few minutes were observed in afternoon, with fluctuations in intensity and tephra content. Seismic tremor recorded by the Icelandic Meteorological Office: Some fluctuations, but mostly stableEruption plume: The strength and tephra content of the plume varies. see memo by Thorvaldur Thordarson, Guðrún Larsen and Ármann Höskuldsson, Hazard due to eruptions and floods from Katla and Eyjafjallajökull, south Iceland, Eyjafjallajökull eruption: 20 March to present, Map of the lava flow on Fimmvörðuháls from 21 March - 7 April 2010, Eyjafjallajokull Volcano - GPS Time Series, New map of the lava flow from 21 - 24 March 2010, Results from observations flights over the eruption site 21 and 22 March 2010, http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1702-02=, http://www.vedur.is/media/vedurstofan/utgafa/skyrslur/2009/VI_2009_013.pdf, http://www.raunvis.hi.is/~mtg/nemritg/BV-MS_2009.pdf, InSAR based sill model links spatially offset areas of deformation and seismicity for the 1994 unrest episode at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland. An eruption began in South Iceland in late evening of 20 March 2010 at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system (also known as Eyjafjöll volcano – Global Volcanism Program Volcano number 1702-02=). 21st April Update Eyjafjallajökull eruption: 20 March to present  - Compiled by Freysteinn Sigmundsson, Radar observations at the Eyjafjallajökull eruption site 15 April 2010, Radar observations at the Eyjafjallajöklull eruption site 14 Apríl 2010 - Eyjólfur Magnússon (pdf-file). Locals reported lava fountaining and a lava flow from the glacier. This page contains scientific data and results from the staff of the Institute of Earth Sciences and various collaborators. Kamchatka Photos from Kamchatka : Kamchatka in Russia's far east is one of world's remotest regions and has an almost unparalleled density of active volcanoes. Katla, which scientists say is long overdue a major eruption, was hit by quakes of magnitude 4.5 and 4.6 plus around 20 aftershocks. With the first eruption occurring on March 20, 2010, there was little explosive activity but some production of lava (Lund & Benediktsson, 2010). Thirteen microearthquakes were recorded in the Mýrdalsjökull caldera from 11 to 14 June, most at a shallow depth. Ash has already reached as far south as Italy. The initial eruption of Eyjafjallajokull volcano last month was basalt, while the new eruption under the glacier last week involved andesite. The closure resulted in 10 million passengers left stranded across the world. The most recent began in December 1821 and lasted intermittently for more than a year. Since the onset of the explosive eruption the tremor has overall been gradually increasing, with superimposed fluctuations. Series of vents along a 2 km long north-south oriented fissure were active, with meltwater flowing down northern slopes of the volcano, but also to the south. Steinunn Jakobsdottir (ssj@vedur.is), Kristin S. Vogfjord (vogfjord@vedur.is), Sigurlaug Hjaltadottir (slauga@vedur.is), Gunnar B. Gudmundsson (gg@vedur.is), Matthew J. Roberts (matthew@vedur.is), Icelandic Meteorological Office, Reykjavik, Iceland. Explosive activity at the eruptive site and seismic tremor continue at a relatively stable rate without a decline overnight. Three continuous / semi-continuous GPS-sites around Eyjafjallajökull have provided important constraints on the evolution of the intrusion. No fatalities as people had been evacuated from hazardous areas. Overall, the eruption was … Magma is melting its way through the icecap producing a circular ice free area by the summit 200 meters in diameter. Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull - Status Report, 23 June 2010Steinunn S. Jakobsdóttir,Magnús Tumi GuðmundssonVery little activity at Eyjafjallajökull volcano. Lava flows short distance from the eruptive site, and minor eruption plume atelevation less than 1 km was deflected by wind to the west. In December 1821 an eruption formed a new crater at Eyjafjallajokull volcano. The deformation signal appear as colour fringes, where each fringe represents a change in range from ground to satellite of 1.5 cm. More glacial bursts are expected as the eruption continues. 20th April update The Institute of Earth Sciences made a preliminary estimate of erupted material in the first three days of the eruption on 14 April 2010 at Eyjafjallajökull. Magnús Tumi GuðmundssonÞorvaldur ÞórðarsonGuðrún LarsenÁrmann HöskuldssonÞórdís HögnadóttirEyjólfur MagnússonHazard due to eruptions and floods from Katla and Eyjafjallajökull, south Iceland - a short summary of: Magnús T. Guðmundsson et.al, 2005: Yfirlit um hættumat vegna eldgosa og hlaupa frá vesturhluta Mýrdalsjökuls og Eyjafjallajökli. Some may be waiting for more than a week to find available seats. Explosive eruptive phase of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, begins 14 April 2010. Ash emissions from Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland reached a maximum height of 27,000 ft on 15th May. All Rights Reserved. There was another glacial outburst earlier in the day at Gígjökull glacial tongue. Immediately prior to the eruption the depth of seismicity had become shallow, but was not significantly enhanced from what it had been in the previous weeks. During an initial eruptive phase from 20 March to 12 April lava flowed from eruptive vents on the volcano flanks, outside its ice cover. A second jokulhlaup/lahar emanates from the ice cap down the Markarfljot valley in the evening. 2. Ash emissions are continuing from Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland. Businesses lost trade. Meltwater: Low discharge from Gígjökull. April), two GPS stations located north (STE2) and south (THEY) of the summit crater moved rapidly toward the eruption site (about 6 cm contraction between stations). This is the first time that British airspace has been totally closed. Viewing the image, it can be seen that the ash has been falling towards the south and east of the eruption site. Bad weather makes visual observations difficult, but surveillance flights with radar and temperature sensors will shed light on the new conditions later today. Ash emissions were reaching 28,000 ft. On 16th April there was a glacial outburst, and water level in Markarfljót rose by 50 centimeters at 6pm. Material (tephra) in the ice cauldrons around the volcanic vents: 30 million cubic metres (39,000,000 cu yd) 2. Several MODIS thermal images on 21 March show a temperature anomaly where the eruption is occurring. An earthquake swarm was recorded beneath the volcano between 23:54 hr (14th May) and 02:45 (15th May). Eruption rate is inferred to have declined over last few days and now be an order of magnitude smaller than during the initial 72 hours of the eruption. The nature of the volcanic hazard – type, frequency, magnitude Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010. Effects of the eruption within Europe. Tephra sedimentation during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland) from deposit, radar, and satellite observations C. Bonadonna,1 R. Genco,2 M. Gouhier,3 M. Pistolesi,4 R. Cioni,5,6 F. Alfano,1 A. Hoskuldsson,7 and M. Ripepe2 Received 22 April 2011; revised 5 October 2011; accepted 6 October 2011; published 16 December 2011. Ashfall was reported in Vik, southern Iceland on 8th May. If flight disruptions continue into this week there will be a shortage of some food products in Britain, which normally come in by air from east Asia and Africa. 9th May 2010 Update Katla did not display any unusual activity (such as expansion of the crust or seismic activity) during the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull, though geologists have been concerned about the general instability of Katla since 1999. 17th April Update Ash emissions from Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland are decreasing as parts of the glacier have melted, allowing lava to reach the surface without magma-water interaction. It is important that the water level be checked regularly. Phreatomatic explosive activity occurs with some lava spatter at craters.Plume height: about 3 kmTephra dispersal: local towards the southMeltwater: minor, but what is melted flows down into Markarfljót, no signs of water accumulation in cratersSeismic tremor recorded by the Icelandic Meteorological Office: some fluctuations but mostly stable. The lava erupted in the initial phase is alkali-olivine basalt, with silica content of about 47%. The ice walls at the southwestern corner of the crater are melting, i.e. Eyjafjallajökull eruption: A new phase started on 14 April 2010A new phase of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption started around midnight on the 14th of April, where melt penetrated its way to the central crater beneath the glacier. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Fig. Eruptions continue from Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland, with ash emissions to 4500 m altitude. Phreatomagmatic eruptions continue from the northern crater, and a plume is reaching an altitude of 3 km. Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull - Status Report: 17:00 GMT, 15 June 2010Icelandic Meteorological Office and Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland. Katla volcano is known for powerful subglacial phreatomagmatic eruptions producing basaltic tephra layers with volumes ranging from ~0.01 to more than 1 cubic kilometer.Three previous eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull are known in the last 1100 years (historical time in Iceland). Wind deflects the plume now to NW, closing airports in SW-Iceland. 18th April update A significant eruption was continuing at Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland. It was a Strombolian eruption in the first phase and Vulcanian in the second phase. Developments in Quaternary Sciences, vol., 13, eds. 14th April 2010 update Each of the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in 920, 1612, and 1821–1823 has preceded an eruption of Katla. These are the first in a series of interferograms anticipated to be formed showing the course of the eruption.The interferograms are formed by analysing images from the German TerraSAR-X satellite. A. Vandeginste Earthquakes and Eruptions in Iceland 2010 from hjalli on Vimeo. 1612 Eruption This photo was taken at sunrise on a Saturday morning in October, by Ólafur Sigurjónsson who lives in Forsæti III nearby and has done frequent flying across the eruptive area. The eruption occurs just outside the ice cap of Eyjafjallajökull, and no ice melting is occurring at present.Satellite data is being used to study the eruption and associated intrusion. Ashfall has been reported in Britain. The earthquake swarm was followed by the onset of seismic eruption tremor. There was a 40 mm inflation of the volcano. An earthquake swarm began under Eyjafjallajokull volcano in January 2010. Give the type, frequency and magnitude of the 2010 eruption. On May 23rd, the London Volcanic Ash Advisory Commission declared the eruption to have stopped. volcanolive.com the Sólheimajökull glacier).Ásta Rut Hjartardóttir (astahj@hi.is), Páll Einarsson (palli@hi.is), Eruption update 22 AprilSimilar situation as yesterday (see 21 April report). The Skerin ridge on Eyjafjallajökull, South Iceland:  Morphology and magma-ice interaction in an ice-confined silicic fissure eruption. The volcano continued to have several earthquakes daily, with volcanologists watching the mountain closely. After a short hiatus in eruptive activity a new set of craters opened up in early morning of 14 April under the volcano’s ice covered central summit caldera. Eruptive products can be split into three categories along with preliminary estimated erupted volumes: 1. When Eyjafjallajökull erupted in 2010, it clogged the atmosphere with so much volcanic ash that at one point the plume was grounding tens of … An earthquake swarm began under Eyjafjallajokull volcano in January 2010. 19th April Update This picture taken on March 27, 2010 shows lava spurting out of the site of a volcanic eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano some 125 km east of Reykjavik. Seismic tremor recorded by the Icelandic Meteorological Office: Some fluctuations, with a peak shortly after midnight 22 April related to a small flood of meltwater. A phonecall in the dead of night was the first inkling the people living on the Thorvaldseyri farm had that Iceland's glacier-covered Eyjafjallajokull volcano was about to erupt. The eruption is still in the explosive phase. No movements associated with the Katla volcano are presently observed - Benedikt Ófeigsson, Sigrún Hreinsdóttir and Bryndís BrandsdóttirRadar observations at the Eyjafjallajöklull eruption site 15 - 19 Apríl 2010 - Eyjólfur Magnússon (pdf-file), Report on magma chemistry – Preliminary interpretations of chemical analysis of tephra from Eyjafjallajökull volcano - Olgeir Sigmarsson et.al (pdf-file). Meltwater started to emanate from the ice cap around 7 o’clock on April 14 and eruption plume was observed in the early morning. 1821-23 Eruption There was a 40 mm inflation of the volcano. Eruption in Iceland at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system begins 20 March 2010An eruption began in South Iceland in late evening of 20 March 2010 at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system (also known as Eyjafjöll volcano – Global Volcanism Program Volcano number 1702-02=). Other eruptions include an eruption in 1612 or 1613, and about 920 A.D.Episodes of unrest are known at Eyjafjallajökull, with documented sill intrusions in 1994 and 1999.For information see:http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1702-02=http://en.vedur.is/http://www.earthice.hi.is/and the following references:Erik Sturkell et. Roads are closed by Fljótsdalur, the old Markarfljót bridge on highway number 1, and by the villages of Vík and Kirkjubaejarklaustur. Travel was severely disrupted as many flights were cancelled between 14 and 21 April 2010. 1), which is overlain by a 200 m thick ice-cap bearing the same name, has produced three eruptions since the tenth century: in 1612, from 1821 to 1823, and the recent 2010 events.Past eruptions have produced very fined-grained ash deposits typically found within a 10 km radius from the Eyjafjallajökull crater (Larsen et al. April 2010:   Latest results from GPS stations around Eyjafjallajökull show deflation associated with the eruption. 13 p.  Reykjavík.Oskarsson, Birgir Vilhelm 2009. A significant eruption is continuing at Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland. Records show eruptions in 920, 1612 or 1613, 1821–23, and 2010. Visual observations were limited by cloud cover over the volcano, but an airplane of the Iceland coast Guard imaged with eruptive crates with radar instrument. Note that parts of the glaciers are greyish/black due to the ashfall (i.e. On 20 March 2010, an eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano began in Fimmvörðuháls following months of small earthquakes under the Eyjafjallajökull glacier. Atmosphere Land Volcanoes A volcanic eruption occurs when hot materials from the Earth's interior are thrown out of a volcano. The tephra is uncompacted, these values corresponds to some 70-80 Million m3 of magma. About 45 people in Langidalur valley north of the Eyjafjallajökull glacier were isolated by the eruption, and 800 people were evacuated. In afternoon 22 April plume reached temporarily up to 6 km height, but was mostly at about 3 km level. Air operators lost millions of pounds each day. Tephra fall begins in southeast Iceland. Ash loaded eruption plume rose to more than 8 km height, deflected to the east by westerly winds. C. J. Bean, A. K. Braiden, I. Lokmer, F. Martini, G. S. O‘Brien, School of Geological Sciences, University College Dublin, p. 13-24, 2009Larsen, G., 1999. Suppl., Abstract V32B-03Contacts:Freysteinn Sigmundsson (fs@hi.is), Magnus Tumi Gudmundsson (mtg@hi.is), Gudrun Larsen (glare@raunvis.hi.is), Sigrun Hreinsdottir (runa@hi.is), Páll Einarsson (palli@hi.is), Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir (ij@hi.is), Nordic Volcanological Center, Institute of Earth Sciences, University of IcelandSteinunn Jakobsdóttir (ssj@vedur.is), Kristin S. Vogfjord (vogfjord@vedur.is), , Sigurlaug Hjaltadottir (slauga@vedur.is), Gunnar B. Gudmundsson (gg@vedur.is), Icelandic Meteorological Office, Reykjavik,Iceland. However volcanic eruptions are unpredictable, and activity can change without warning. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010. Update on activity in Eyjafjallajökull 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. Lett., 31, L14610, doi:10.1029/2004GL020368, 2004.Sigmundsson, F., Geirsson, H., Hooper, A. J., Hjaltadottir, S., Vogfjord, K. S., Sturkell, E. C., Pedersen, R., Pinel, V., Fabien, A., Einarsson, P. Gudmundsson, M. T., Ofeigsson, B., Feigl, K., Magma ascent at coupled volcanoes: Episodic magma injection at Katla and Eyjafjallajökull ice-covered volcanoes in Iceland and the onset of a new unrest episode in 2009, Eos Trans. There have been no changes in crater size at Eyjafjallajokull volcano since 19th April. 1, was closed between Skógar and the crossroads to Gunnarsholt east of Hella. Present magma eruption rate is about 75 tonnes/second which is about 10% of the 72-hour long maximum phase. 22nd April Update Samples collected 19 April have 850 mg/kg (initially it was 25-35 mg/kg). Pulses are observed off and on. At the beginning of March 2010 over 3000 earthquakes were measured in a 24 hour period, with a maximum at magnitude 3.1. Overnight wind conditions at the eruptive site change. Ríkislögreglustjórinn og Háskólaútgáfan. The eruption lit up the night sky so residents could see perfectly as in the day time. Several days or weeks are therefore likely to pass before the crater has filled with water, and up to months if the melting slows down. Explosive eruptive phase of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, begins 14 April 2010The eruption plume from Iceland that has caused the unprecedentedcatastrophic disruption of air traffic and closure of airspaces over northern Europe is due to an explosive eruptive phase that began at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano on April 14. There were active, frequent earthquakes and the volcano is now considered to be dormant. Steam clouds:Height (a.s.l. Tephra next to craters is 20-30 m thick. Res. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull was presaged by a series of earthquakes starting in early March. Chemical analyses of ash samples reveal fluorine rich intermediate eruptive products with silica content of 58%, more evolved than in the initial lava producing phase of the eruptive activity. 16th May 2010 Update Iceland’s highway No. Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i: Kilauea is the most active volcano on earth, in constant eruption since 1983! (pdf from ppt presentation), Eruption update: 17 April, morning – stable eruption, change in wind conditions. Flow in the Markarfljót river increased significantly and the water level has risen by 84 centimeters. The eruption resulted in the cancellation of 17,000 flights, worldwide. Lightning continues to be recorded in the eruption plume from Eyjafjallajokull volcano with a rate of about 30 strikes per day. Seismic tremor:Low tremor level. A MODIS satellite image at 03:41 GMT shows the eruption plume bending from south to east, and a NOAA AVHRR satellite image acquired at 07:01 GMT shows plume heading from the volcano towards the south. Eyjafjallajokull volcano, Icelandic volcano whose name is derived from an Icelandic phrase meaning ‘the island’s mountain glacier.’ Lying beneath Eyjafjallajökull (Eyjafjalla Glacier), its summit rises to 5,466 feet (1,666 meters) above sea level. Jokulhlaups (floods of meltwater) reached the lowlands around the volcano with peak flow around noon on April 14, with destruction of roads, infrastructure, and farmlands. All flights to and from Britain have been cancelled until at least 7pm today. This could indicate continued deflation of another and deeper magma source. 2010 Eruption Seismic signs of magma pathways through the crust at Eyjafjallajokull volcanoe, South Iceland, Icelandic Meteorological office report,  VI 2009-013http://www.vedur.is/media/vedurstofan/utgafa/skyrslur/2009/VI_2009_013.pdfHooper, A., R. Pedersen, F. Sigmundsson, Constraints on magma intrusion at Eyjafjallajökull and Katla volcanoes in Iceland, from time series SAR interferometry, In:  The VOLUME project – Volcanoes:  Understanding subsurface mass movement, eds. From 14–20 April, ash from the volcanic eruption covered large areas of Northern Europe. Science Institute Research Report RH-28-99. Over 20 lightning recorded in the eruption plume over a 4 hour period. Compiled by: Freysteinn Sigmundsson, Magnús Tumi Guðmundsson, Guðrún Larsen, Níels Óskarsson, Sigurður Reynir Gíslason, Páll Einarsson, Sigrún Hreinsdóttir, Rikke Pedersen, Ármann Höskuldsson, Guðrún Sverrisdóttir, other staff of Institute of Earth Sciences and collaborators. Although the volcanic eruptions were relatively small, the effects had a hugely debilitating impact on the European airline industry. "It's last major eruption was in about 186 A.D. and it has a history of major explosive eruptions every two thousand years. The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was observed at the volcano, lightening up the sky above the eruptive site. Insight into the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull from GPS data  - Sigrún Hreinsdóttir and Þóra ÁrnadóttirIn the first two days of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano summit eruption (14. The magma composition may reflect evolution from alkali-olivine basalt by crystal fractionation as erupted in the initial phase.Contacts:Freysteinn Sigmundsson (fs@hi.is), Magnus Tumi Gudmundsson (mtg@hi.is), Niels Oskarsson (nielso@hi.is), Gudrun Larsen (glare@raunvis.hi.is), Sigrun Hreinsdottir (runa@hi.is), Pall Einarsson (palli@hi.is), Rikke Pedersen (rikke@hi.is), Ingibjorg Jonsdottir (ij@hi.is), Nordic Volcanological Center, Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland. For months following the eruption there were numerous reports of resuspended volcanic ash … Eruptions are continuing at the volcano. Based on: IMO seismic monitoring; IES-IMO GPS monitoring; IMO hydrological data; web camera; lightning detection system and flights over the eruption site 11 and 14 June. Gosið í Eyjafjallajökli 1821-1823 (The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 1821-1823). The neighbouring volcano Katla erupted then on 26 June 1823. BGS scientists respond to volcanic eruptions and contribute to the Scientific Advisory Group in Emergencies (SAGE Iceland has several volcanoes and is situated on two tectonic plates – the North American plate and Eurasian plate. In the past, the UK has been affected by volcanic eruptions in Iceland, the most notable being the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grímsvötn eruptions, which resulted in disruption of air traffic in the North Atlantic and Europe. Tremor is not decreasing and does not reflect the decline as inferred for the eruption rate.GPS-measurements: indicate continuing small pressure decrease under the volcano at a similar rate.Composition of erupted material: Samples collected April 19 show same composition as early in the explosive phase, but fluorine content is higher. Modeling of the GPS data suggest deformation due to a volume change of a shallow magma source (1 km depth). Case study - eruption in a developed country: Eyjafjallajökull. The 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull were volcanic events at Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland which, although relatively small for volcanic eruptions, caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe over an initial period of six days in April 2010. The erupted products are fragmented material, the majority fine-grained airborne tephra. Earthquakes: A few small, shallow earthquakes have been recorded beneath the Eyjafjallajökull summit in the last weeks. Ash is approaching the coast of Canada near Newfoundland, and is expected to reach the coast at about 1 pm. The first 2010 eruption occurred at Fimmvörðuháls. An eruption began near the Eyjafjallajökull glacier on 21st March 2010. However, a station at the northeastern caldera rim (AUST), moved about three centimeters towards the southwest from the 9th to the 13th of June, inward to the caldera. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull produced volcanic ash that was mostly deposited to the south and east of the volcano with the thickest deposits closest to the eruption vents. Compiled by: Bergthóra S. Thorbjarnardóttir, Magnús Tumi Guðumundsson, Sigrún Hreinsdóttir and Gunnar Sigurðsson. As of August 2010, Eyjafjallajökull … THEY and SKOG are steel quadripod stations and STEI and STE2 are tripod and steel rod stations, respectively. Katla and Eyjafjallajökull Volcanoes, Developments in Quaternary Sciences, vol 13, 5-21.Sturkell, E., P. Einarsson, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, A. Hooper, B. G.Ófeigsson, H. Geirsson and H. Ólafsson, Katla and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes, In:  The Mýrdalsjökull Ice cap, Iceland - Glacial processes, sediments and landforms on an active volcano. The initial interferograms have been formed by Andy Hooper at Delft.Contact persons:  Rikke Pedersen (rikke@hi.is), Martin Hensch (martinh@hi.is), Andy Hooper (a.j.hooper@tudelft.nl), Kurt Feigl (feigl@wisc.edu), Amandine Auriac (ama3@hi.is), Freysteinn Sigmundsson (fs@hi.is), GPS measurements from Thorvaldseyri (THEY), south of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, now show displacement towards north. The resulting flood would flow to the north, down the Gígjökull valley glacier, and could reach a maximum of 1500-2000 cubic meters per second. Pulsating eruptive plume reaches above 8 km, with overall height of 5 km. With a VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index) of four, the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull was not one of the largest recorded eruptions, but the resulting damage was significant. Volc., 68, 377-393, 2006.Pedersen, R., F. Sigmundsson,InSAR based sill model links spatially offset areas of deformation and seismicity for the 1994 unrest episode at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, Geophys. The background image is from the US/Japan ASTER project, and was acquired on the 19th of April. The massive volcanic plumes released on the 14th of April 2010, covered almost the entirety of Northern Europe and forced more than 20 countries to close their airspace. A high column of flame reportedly rose from the crater. The grounding of flights has already cost the British economy about £1 billion, with £230m losses for every day of further disruption. Residents were evacuated. The magnitude of the surface area can then be estimated at approximately 500,000,000 km2, reported to one significant figure. To satellite of 1.5 cm, University of Iceland last month was basalt while! With less explosive activity about 10 % of the Institute of Earth,... 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