This isn't a big deal but it's nice to have. Since the computer is capable of doing only what it is instructed to do, faulty instructions for data processing may lead to faulty results. – Definition, Secondary memory is also known as secondary storage. The memory of a computer somewhat similar but more limited at its possibilities. – Definition. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings, However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves One computer is designated as File server (which stores all the software that server printer controls the network) and all other computers which are connected to it acts as work stations. CPU performs all types of data processing operations. A laser beam reads the pits and the data can be accessed. It consisted of thousands of tiny rings called cores, made from a magnetic FERRITE material and each threaded onto three fine copper wires: the whole formed a two-dimensional mesh much like a knitted textile. Optical disks are popularly known as compact disks (CDs). How to solve it by Computer by R. J. Dromey, Prentice-Hall India EEE Series. An effective interface of an operating system does not concern the user with the internal workings of the system. Operating system is a platform between hardware and user which is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of a computer. MAN is a network where all the LAN's are connected each other or the computers are connected by a single network (back bone) MAN may be operated by one organization or be shared resources by several organizations in the same city. about What is IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics)? If your system is working okay already, don’t bother with this information because it’s pretty technical. Small sections of data can be accessed very quickly from these storage devices and brought into the main memory, as and when required, for processing. • A computer is made up of hardware. This is because the computer stores the keys you pressed in a buffer-after doing one command; it goes back to the buffer to get the next one in line. ACHARYA N.G.RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY LECTURE NOTES Course No : STCA-301 Introduction to It can also be used for applications such as order writing, payroll, questionnaires etc MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader): You must have seen special magnetic encoding characters printed on the bottom of a cheque, Those characters are printed using special ink, which contains iron particles that can be magnetized. It receives the result in machine-coded form from the cpu, and then converts them into user understandable format such as graphics/audio/video/text etc... Output devices translate the computer's output into the form understandable by users. Those were the only means of communication between a program and its user, based solely on textual input and output. • A single hard disk usually consists of several platters. The disk controller is circuitry on the computer’s motherboard or on a plug-in circuit board that controls the operation of your hard disk drive, floppy disk drives, or both. Both types of RAM are volatile, meaning that they lose their contents when the power is turned off. Plan for Today. 9, Unit Help 1 Introduction to computers Larger in size-More expensive as it produces better quality image. To move the pointer, you rotate the ball with your fingers/thumb instead of moving the entire arm, the user can get more precision and accuracy, so the designers interested in using it. Chapter One Introduction to Computer. These notes are to accompany the Computer Concepts PowerPoint presentation. It is not useful to input large amounts of data. Output Unit: Output unit consists of devices with the help of which we get the information from computer. Used at: • Most personal computers contain a small amount of Rom that stores critic programs such as the program that boots the computer. ' CPU consists of three main subsystems, which work together to provide operational capabilities to the computer. Or A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that allows computers to exchange data. Pointing devices: Hey, Keyboard is not convenient for some applications (inputting data). CD-ROM: A CD-ROM is a CD that contains computer data, which cannot be read or rewritten. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers. [Read more…] about What is Secondary Memory? ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit): This unit consists of two subsections namely: Arithmetic Section & Logic Section ARITHMETIC SECTION: Function of Arithmetic section is to perform arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Produce high resolution; Printing speed up to 90 cps. The same technology is available in computer monitors and there are many options available. Its size affects speed, power and capability. Scanners also called Optical scanners as they use a light beam to scan the input data. Scanners: A scanner is an input device that converts a document into an electronic format that can be stored on your disk, that electronic image can be edited, manipulated, combined, and printed by using the image editing software. Voltage Polarizer Color fitter Color filter glas Polarizer Backlight therefore, is like a shutter, either allowing light to pass through or blocking the light. To avoid University of Texas at Austin CS429H - Introduction to Computer Systems Fall 2011 Don Fussell 12 Memory Referencing Errors C and C++ do not provide any memory protection Out of bounds array references Invalid pointer values Abuses of malloc/free Can lead to nasty bugs Whether or not bug has any effect depends on system and compiler Daisy is named to this printer because the print head of this printer resembles a daisy flower, with printing arms that appear like petals of the flower. Definition: ECC Memory stands for Error-Correcting Code Memory is a type of RAM that adds error detection and correction circuitry to automatically detect and correct single-bit memory errors in any of the chip. [Read more…] about What is laser printer? Definition: A laser printer (also known as Page Printers as they prints the whole page at once) represent a real technological revolution. Floppy disks are slower to access than hard disks and have less storage capacity, but they are less expensive and portable. Since there is only one processor, there can be no true simultaneous execution of different programs. Hence, computers are unable to give any conclusion without going through intermediate steps. This notes are for starters. Computer. SDRAM introduced in 1969-70. Tentative topics will include computer organization, instruction set design, memory system design, pipelining, and other techniques to exploit parallelism. It can read 2,000 documents per hour. It does not carry out any actual data processing operations. Seminar II; 2 Today well learn. Registers: Registers are the special purpose, high-speed temporary storage area units within the CPU When CPU executes the instructions, there is a transfer of information between various units of the computer. Portable computers such as laptops quite often have custom keyboards instead of standard keyboard arrangement. Likewise, a computer program (software) cannot operate without the computer hardware. Time-sharing or multitasking is a logical extension of multiprogramming. Current uses for flat-panel displays include calculators, video games, monitors, laptop computer, graphics display. EEPROM: Acronym for eclectically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. (The register can contain the address of a memory location where data is stored rather than the actual data itself.) You may already have enough. This unit makes link between user and computer. Associative memory is much slower than RAM, and is rarely encountered in mainstream computer designs. The tape is wound on a spool and threaded manually on the take-up spool. Q 11 rights reserved. Ex: Plasma panel and LED (Light-Emitting Diodes). Main memory cycle time is usually several times the internal cycle time. One is that the screen gets brighter faster. Lecture notes and sample code files. Mapping is important to computer performance, both locally (how long it takes to execute an instruction) and globally (how long it takes to run a set of programs). The laser beam reads the pits and the data can accessed. This is known as GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out) Diligence: Computer, being a machine, does not suffer from the human traits of tiredness and lack of concentration. In effect, each time a program presents a logical memory address and requests that the corresponding memory word be accessed, the mapping mechanism must translate that address into an appropriate physical memory location. The major reasons behind the reliability of computers are that, at hardware level, it does not require any human intervention between its processing operations. !H- 3 There are 2 types of mouse, Mechanical & Optical mouse. ' Through EEPROM, an individual byte of data can erase and reprogrammed entirety, not selectively by the electrical voltage. A : Track B : Geometrical Sector C: Track Sector D: Cluster • With disks it is possible to directly access records by specifying the address or location. Some of the Pointing devices like mouse, trackball, joystick, pen, touch screen. IC's are made up of capacitors, transistors, and resistors etc... which are hooked up on a fiber-glass board called circuit boards. 5.1 r Prlntlnø Machanlsm of a Drum Prlnter Actuator current ca using to vbrate Ink pushed—— out the rna nåold v b rates Ink drop only - Actual size not Plotter: These are non-impact page printers. By eed311udswa October 8, 2012 3 Comments. When an application is opened, the operating system lets the application provide the majority of the user interface. Light beam is placed below the glass plate, moves left-right when it gets activated. LAICHENA LEONARD. computer. Time-Sharing Systems objective is to minimize response time. COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LECTURE NOTES Year : 2016 - 2017 Subject Code : ACS001 Regulations : R16 ... INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS COMPUTER SYSTEMS ―A Computer is an electronic device that stores, manipulates and retrieves the data.‖ In computer system, both hardware and software work together. A typical hard disk is built right into your computer or is housed in a box nearby-and you never see the actual hard disk or take it out of its container. It is permanent & physical. It is characterized by its slowness and cheapness, relative to the RAM, and by its permanent appearance. – Definition, In terms of computing’s history, we’re just beginning to scratch the surface of the lifestyle applications of touch-sensitive gadgets. Cache memory: A special temporary memory assigned with a processor, allowing the processor's speed in executing instructions. Impact printers • Impact printers: work by physically striking a head or needle against an ink ribbon to make a mark on the paper. With the tremendous growth in computer technologies, computers today have the capability to connect with each other. Lecture Notes. LIMITATIONS OF A COMPUTER: A computer can only perform what it is programmed to do. All complex operations are done by making repetitive use of above operations. The Mouse This is the other way to interact with your computer. Home » Courses » Electrical Engineering and Computer Science » Introduction to C++ » Lecture Notes Lecture Notes Course Home Week : Topic : Notes : 1 Introduction to Operating Systems and Computer Systems/OS Structures Lecture set 1 (updated 4.7): [ pdf] [ ppt] 2 Processes, Threads, Interprocess Communication Lecture set 2 (updated 4.15): [ pdf] [ ppt] 3 CPU Scheduling A user had to learn many commands for proper operation of the system. Software is so called in contrast to computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. Question of security and integrity of user programs and data. lecture notes – word processor [ms word] Posted by eed311udswa on October 30, 2012 in NEWS , NOTES Click “ EED 311- Introduction to Computers and Computing_with MS WORD ” … Without input device the computer is much like a TV. Advantages of computers Large storage of data in small amount of space. [Read more…] about What is a RAM Disk? L 18: For printers resolution is measured in dpi (number of dots per inch); more dots, more quality. PROMs are manufactured as blank chips on which data can be written. about What is SDRAM (synchronous DRAM)? This book started from the premise that Computer Science should be taught as a liberal art, not an industrial skill. It does this by using hard disk space for additional memory 3, Unit 1 Introduction to computers The area of the hard disk that stores the RAM image is called a page file. Easily see 10:1 performance range depending on how code written Must optimize at multiple levels: algorithm, data representations, It manages and coordinates all the units of the computer. [Read more…] about What is VRAM (video ram)? Keyboard resembles a regular typewriter with few additional keys. In this article, we’ll take a look at two of the most important touch-based input technologies used in computers, smartphones, laptops, and tablets. It fetches program instructions from RAM, interpret them, & ensure correctness of the program. The input devices translate the human being information into the form understandable by computer. Fatal error!? As the name of the memory suggests, ECC memory is a kind of memory that can identify and fix the most common data error, but it used for single-bit memory errors. [Read more…] about What is Cycle Time? – Definition. It performs scanning slowly with its light from top to bottom, finally the document converts & stored as an image. PRIMARY OR MAIN MEMORY: A storage location that holds memory for short periods of times. More pins per inch = More resolution = More quality output. The term disk cache can also refer to a disk buffer and cache buffer. – Definition. Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs by Harold Abelson and Gerald Sussman with Julie Sussman, MIT Press, 1985. Please refer to these notes when viewing the presentation. [Read more…] about What is Auxiliary memory (secondary storage)? Registers receive the information, hold it temporarily & pass it on as directed by the Control Unit. Language: English. Preview text. Lecturer: Rich Maclin Teaching Assistant: Jason Sonnek Syllabus Grades Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) What do you hand in for labs? Quality of printed media depends upon the distance of dots. Entering and displaying information is carried out on a wide variety of accessory devices called peripherals, also known as input/output (I/O) devices. The speed of a computer is calculated in MHz (Megahertz), that is, one million instructions per second. These results are accessed by the C stores PU and are transferred to Output Unit. Title: Introduction to Computers 1 Introduction to Computers. Check out the FAQ and the lab policies page Class Schedule (all items tentative until the day of class) Course-Related web pages: It is where programs and data kept for long-term storage or when not in immediate use. Typically, a Introduction to computers MAN ALAN 8 A LAN — City Q.Qa Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs). Multiple jobs are executed by the CPU by switching between them, but the switches occur so frequently. This technique of using more than one processor is also called parallel processing. Like other types of PROM, EEPROM retains its contents even when the power is turned off. Cache memory stores the frequent instructions & data which are required to finish the job by the processor, thus saving the time of the processor instead of loading those frequent instructions & data from RAM. Introduction. It is flat, circular, plastic or glass disk on which data is stored in the form of light and dark pits. Primary memory stores all the data & instructions to be processed during the course of processing, it intermediate results of processing. WAN Wide Area Netwcn Reti Ki!i MAN Metropolitan Area Reti LAN Local Area Reti 'i 20. The memory capacity of the computer can be increased by using secondary or external or auxiliary memory units to the computer. [Read more…] about What is Memory mapping? Input devices help the users to interact with the computer. A typical hard disk is built right into your, What is SDRAM (synchronous DRAM)? Control Unit: • Control unit of CPU contains circuitry that uses electrical signals to direct the entire computer system to carry out, or execute, stored program instructions. This section provides the lecture notes for each session of the course along with supporting code files. Introduction to Computers You are viewing 126 documents of Introduction to Computers °c Diego Calvanese Lecture Notes for Introduction to Programming A.A. 2004/05. Since it is lit with many small LEDs rather than one big light source it will generally have less dark or light spots. Understanding RAM on a PC gets pretty complicated, especially if you’re using DOS instead of Windows. Slide 4: A computer is defined as . Wheels are inexpensive & removable, if you want to change the font style you've to replace the wheel. The data can be erased and reprogrammed by using ultraviolet (UV) light. an electronic device that operates under the control . The computer can use it to speed up the process of storing and accessing the information much more quickly from the disk cache than if the information stored in the usual place (which might be on a disk or in a part of the computer’s memory that takes longer to access). High-Speed connections using fiber optical cable or other digital media memory found in computers and Fluency. Location that holds memory for short periods of times a `` Microprocessor/Processor '' are soft copy.... 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